Cochrane Back and Neck (CBN)'s scope covers the areas of diagnosis, primary and secondary prevention and treatment of neck and back pain and other spinal disorders, excluding inflammatory diseases and fractures. This may intersect with the scope of a number of other Cochrane review groups. In some cases, CBN will consult with another review group if the topic may overlap or be more appropriately covered within their scope.

Fractures are generally covered by the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group; traumatic injuries are covered by the Cochrane Injuries Group; musculoskeletal inflammatory diseases are covered by the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group; occupational health interventions that are focused on the workplace rather than the healthcare system for either prevention or treatment are generally covered by the Cochrane Occupational Safety and Health Group; general pain issues and palliative care are covered by the Cochrane Pain Palliative and Supportive Care Group; back pain in pregnancy and up to 30 days after birth is covered by the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group.