North America (USA)
Dowell, D., Haegerich, TM, and Chou, R. (2016). CDC guideline for prescribing opioids for chronic pain—United States, 2016. JAMA 315(15): 1624-1645.
References CBN reviews:
Exercise therapy for treatment of non-specific low back pain (Hayden 2005)
Multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation for chronic low-back pain (Kamper 2015)
Opioids compared to placebo or other treatments for chronic low-back pain (Chaparro 2014)